90% of people think like this:

“The white wine should be kept in the refrigerator. Red wine should be served at room temperature.”
Popular belief
Without considering that the "room temperature" changes drastically from season to season and from one geographic location to another.

The serving temperature greatly affects the olfactory, gustatory and tactile sensations. Each wine has a precise temperature at which it must be served to bring out the best organoleptic characteristics and pleasantness.

The effect of temperature has great importance on the perception of the aromas and flavors of wine.
The lower the temperature of the wine, the lower the perception of aromas and vice versa.
Low temperatures tend to increase the sensations of hardness of the wine (sapidity, acidity, bitterness/astringency) while high temperatures tend to enhance the sensations of softness of wine (sweetness, structure).

So we can summarize the wine serving temperatures with the following table.

Dry sparkling wines 4-6 °C
Sweet wines and sparkling wines 6-8 °C
Young white wines and rose wines 8-10 °C
Structured and aged white wines,
passito white wines
10-12 °C
Structured rosé wines,
delicate and slightly tannic red wines
12-14 °C
Red wines of medium structure and tannins,
passito red wines
14-16 °C
Aged red wines of great structure and tannins 16-18 °C

These are recommended service temperatures by the Italian Sommelier Association, considering that, after pouring a wine into the glass, its temperature quickly increases by about 2 ° C.